The following books, articles, and web pages have been of help in developing the curriculum. These resources may also be of interest to instructors who use the curriculum and to their students.


  • Appleby, A. J. and F. R. Foulkes. Fuel Cell Handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989. ISBN 0442319266, 9780442319267. 762 pages. The definitive reference at the time it was published, now superseded by more recent books on this list. Devotes considerable attention to the integration of fuel cells in complete power systems and to the public and private sector programs that were striving for early commercialization of fuel cells in the 1970s and 1980s. In-depth treatment of fuel cell materials and stack design considerations. Includes a very extensive bibliography with close to 3,000 references.
  • Barbir, Frano. PEM Fuel Cells: Theory and Practice. Academic Press, 2005. ISBN 0120781425, 9780120781423. 433 pages. A favorite book at Schatz Energy Research Center, and used extensively in developing H2E3 curriculum. Designed as a university textbook with problem sets and quiz questions. The emphasis on PEM fuel cells makes this an especially useful book in a lab that works exclusively with this fuel cell type. Includes chapters on fuel cell electrochemistry and thermodynamics, material properties, stack design, and fuel cell modeling.
  • Blomen, Leo J. M. J. and Michael N. Mugerwa. Fuel Cell Systems. Springer, 1993. ISBN 0306441586, 9780306441585. 614 pages. Contributed to by authors from North America, Europe, and Japan. The “Overview of fuel cell technology” chapter is a concise treatment of many of the essentials. Includes chapters on fuel cell economics and markets.
  • EG&G Technical Services, Inc. Fuel Cell Handbook (Seventh Edition). Under Contract No. DE-AM26-99FT40575. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. November 2004. 427 pages. Online at: A textbook-sized volume available for free online courtesy of the Department of Energy. Includes entire chapters on each of the major fuel cell types.
  • Hoogers, Gregor (ed.). Fuel Cell Technology Handbook CRC Press, 2003. ISBN 0849308771, 9780849308772. 360 pages. Features a fairly detailed chapter on the history of fuel cell development. A chapter on fuel cell cycle analysis compares pollutant emissions from fuel cells and other power systems. The chapter on thermodynamics and electrochemical kinetics is also valuable and well-written.
  • Kordesch, Karl and Günter Simader. Fuel Cells and Their Applications (Fourth Edition). VCH, 2000. ISBN 3527285792, 9783527285792. 375 pages. Co-author Kordesch built the first fuel cell-powered car to drive on public roads. In addition to the usual technical descriptions of different fuel cell types, this book provides a history of these and other early experiments in hydrogen transportation.
  • Larminie, James and Andrew Dicks. Fuel Cell Systems Explained. Wiley, 2000. ISBN 0471490261, 9780471490265. 308 pages. Extensive diagrams and photos provide an especially rich visual treatment of the fuel cell topic. As the title implies, this book delves into the larger issues of integrating fuel cells into power systems and the various pathways for producing hydrogen fuel.
  • Masters, Gilbert M. Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems. Chapter 4.6, “Fuel Cells.” Wiley-IEEE Press, 2004. ISBN 0471280607, 978-0471280606. 680 pages. The concise and useful chapter on fuel cells has been assigned as reading as part of the Renewable Energy Power Systems upper division undergraduate engineering course at Humboldt State University. Focus is mainly on fuel cell thermodynamics. Brief descriptions of the various fuel cell types and a short discussion of the technologies for producing hydrogen are also included. A university-level textbook with problem sets (just a few hydrogen-related problems).
  • McAuliffe, Charles Andrew. Hydrogen and Energy. Gulf Publishing Company, 1980. ISBN 0872013723, 9780872013728. 109 pages. A short but helpful book that has been on the shelf at Schatz Energy Research Center for many years. We have often consulted its tables comparing characteristics of hydrogen with those of other fuels.
  • Romm, Joseph. The Hype About Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. Island Press, 2004. ISBN 1559637048, 978-1559637046. 256 pages. A long-time hydrogen skeptic makes his case. Written in the era when many political and business leaders were touting hydrogen as a panacea for the nation’s “addiction” to oil. Romm, a climate change expert and former Dept. of Energy official, favors continued hydrogen R&D but is convinced that fuel cells do not offer a short-term path to a low-carbon energy economy. He recommends instead increased emphasis on energy efficiency, renewable energy, and low-carbon transportation fuels that can be adopted on a massive scale more quickly than hydrogen.
  • Spiegel, Colleen. Designing and Building Fuel Cells. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007. ISBN 0071489770, 9780071489775. 434 pages. Similar in approach and format to Frano Barbir’s book, but with some attention to fuel cell types other than PEM.

Articles and Papers

  • Carrette, Linda, K. Andreas Friedrich, and Ulrich Stimming. “Fuel cells: Principles, types, fuels, and applications.” ChemPhysChem, Vol 1. 2002. pgs. 162-193.
  • Lutz,Andrew E., Richard S. Larson, and Jay O. Keller. “Thermodynamic comparison of fuel cells to the Carnot cycle.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 27. 2002. pgs. 1103 – 1111.
  • Ogden, Joan.“High Hopes for Hydrogen.” Scientific American. Sept. 2006. pgs. 94-101.
  • Rayment, Chris and Scott Sherwin. “Introduction to Fuel Cell Technology.” Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame. 2003. Online at:
  • Wang, Yun et al. "A review of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: Technology, applications, and needs on fundamental research."  Applied Energy, Volume 88, Issue 4, April 2011, pgs. 981-1007.

Web Pages

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